Saturday, August 18, 2007

Mga Wika at Diyalekto ng Iba't-ibang Bansa

Bilang pagtatapos ng Linggo ng Wika, nais kong ibahagi sa inyo ang mga talaan ng iba't-ibang wika at diyalekto ng bawat bansa:

Afghanistan - Pashtu, Dari Persian, other Turkic and minor languages
Albania- Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Algeria-Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Andorra-Catalán (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Angola-Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Antigua and Barbuda-English (official), local dialects
Argentina-Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Armenia-Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Australia-English, native languages
Austria-German 98% (official nationwide); Slovene, Croatian, Hungarian (each official in one region)
Azerbaijan-Azerbaijani Turkic 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Bahamas-English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahrain-Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bangladesh-Bangla (official), English
Belarus-Belorussian (White Russian), Russian, other
Belgium-Dutch (Flemish) 60%, French 40%, German less than 1% (all official); legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
Belize-English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Benin-French (official), Fon, Yoruba, tribal languages
Bhutan-Dzongkha (official), Tibetan dialects (among Bhotes), Nepalese dialects (among Nepalese)
Bolivia-Spanish, Quechua, Aymara (all official)
Bosnia and Herzegovina-Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (all official)
Botswana-English (official), Setswana
Brazil-Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Brunei Darussalam-Malay (official), English, Chinese
Bulgaria-Bulgarian; secondary languages strongly correspond to ethnic breakdown
Burkina Faso-French (official); native African (Sudanic) languages 90%
Burundi-Kirundi and French (official), Swahili
Cambodia-Khmer (official), French, English
Cameroon-French, English (both official); 24 major African language groups
Canada-English 59.3%, French 23.2% (both official); other 17.5%
Cape Verde-Portuguese, Criuolo
Central African Republic-French (official), Sangho (lingua franca, national), tribal languages
Chad-French, Arabic (both official); Sara; more than 120 languages and dialects
China-Standard Chinese (Mandarin/Putonghua), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages
Comoros-Arabic and French (both official), Shikomoro (Swahili/Arabic blend)
Congo, Republic of-French (official), Lingala, Monokutuba, Kikongo, many local languages and dialects
Congo, Democratic Republic of the-French (official), Lingala, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Costa Rica-Spanish (official), English
Côte d'Ivoire-French (official) and African languages (Diaula esp.)
Croatia-Croatian 96% (official), other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, German)
Cyprus-Greek, Turkish (both official); English
Czech Republic-Czech
Denmark-Danish, Faeroese, Greenlandic (Inuit dialect), German; English is the predominant second language
Djibouti-French and Arabic (both official), Somali, Afar
Dominica-English (official) and French patois
Dominican Republic-Spanish
East Timor-Tetum, Portuguese (official); Bahasa Indonesia, English; other indigenous languages, including Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak
Ecuador-Spanish (official), Quechua, other Amerindian languages
Egypt-Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
El Salvador-Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Equatorial Guinea-Spanish, French (both official); pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Eritrea-Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
Estonia-Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
Ethiopia-Amharic (official), Tigrigna, Orominga, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, English, over 70 others
Fiji-English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Finland-Finnish 93.4%, Swedish 5.9% (both official); small Sami- (Lapp) and Russian-speaking minorities
France-French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects (Provençal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Gabon-French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Gambia, The-English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
Georgia-Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, other 7% (Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia)
Ghana-English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Greece-Greek 99% (official), English, French
Grenada-English (official), French patois
Guatemala-Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Guinea-French (official), native tongues (Malinké, Susu, Fulani)
Guinea-Bissau-Portuguese (official), Criolo, African languages
Guyana-English (official), Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu
Haiti-Creole and French (both official)
Honduras-Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects; English widely spoken in business
Hungary-Magyar (Hungarian), 98.2%; other, 1.8%
Iceland-Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
India-Hindi (official), English (official), Bengali, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Kannada, Assamese, Sanskrit, Sindhi (all recognized by the constitution). Dialects, 1,600+
Indonesia-Bahasa Indonesia (official), English, Dutch, Javanese, and more than 580 other languages and dialects
Iran-Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Iraq-Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Ireland-English, Irish (Gaelic)
Israel-Hebrew (official), Arabic, English
Italy-Italian (official); German-, French-, and Slovene-speaking minorities
Jamaica-English (official), Jamaican Creole
Jordan-Arabic (official), English
Kazakhstan-Kazak (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%; Russian (official, used in everyday business) 95% (2001 est.)
Kenya-English (official), Swahili (national), and several other languages spoken by 25 ethnic groups
Kiribati-English (official), I-Kiribati (Gilbertese)
Korea, North-Korean
Korea, South-Korean, English widely taught
Kuwait-Arabic (official), English
Kyrgyzstan-Kyrgyz, Russian (both official)
Laos-Lao (official), French, English, various ethnic languages
Latvia-Latvian (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other
Lebanon-Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Lesotho-English, Sesotho (both official); Zulu, Xhosa
Liberia-English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic-group languages
Libya-Arabic, Italian and English widely understood in major cities
Liechtenstein-German (official), Alemannic dialect
Lithuania-Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian
Luxembourg-Luxermbourgish (national) French, German (both administrative)
Macedonia -Macedonian 68%, Albanian 25% (both official); Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 2%, other 2%
Madagascar-Malagasy and French (both official)
Malawi-English and Chichewa (both official), others important regionally
Malaysia-Bahasa Melayu (Malay, official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai- several indigenous languages (including Iban, Kadazan) in East Malaysia
Maldives-Maldivian Dhivehi (official); English spoken by most government officials
Mali-French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Malta-Maltese and English (both official)
Marshall Islands-Marshallese (two major dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family), English (both official); Japanese
Mauritania-Hassaniya Arabic, Wolof (both official); Pulaar, Soninke, French
Mauritius-English, French (both official); Creole, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka, Bojpoori
Mexico-Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Micronesia-English (official, common), Chukese, Pohnpeian, Yapase, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Moldova-Moldovan (official; virtually the same as Romanian), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Monaco-French (official), English, Italian, Monégasque
Mongolia-Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)
Morocco-Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often used for business, government, and diplomacy
Mozambique-Portuguese (official), Bantu languages
Myanmar-Burmese, minority languages
Namibia-English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero- Nama
Nauru-Nauruan (official), English
Nepal-Nepali 90% (official), over 40 other languages and major dialects, English (1995)
The Netherlands-Dutch, Frisian (both official)
New Zealand-English, Maori (both official)
Nicaragua-Spanish (official); English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast
Niger-French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria-English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and more than 200 others
Norway-Bokmål Norwegian, Nynorsk Norwegian (both official); small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Oman-Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Pakistan-Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English, Burushaski, and others 8%
Palau-English (official everywhere); Palau (official in all states but those following); Sonsoralese (official in Sonsoral); Tobi (official in Tobi); Angaur and Japanese (official in Angaur)
Palestinian State (proposed)-Arabic, Hebrew, English
Panama-Spanish (official), English 14%, many bilingual
Papua New Guinea-Tok Pisin (Melanesian Pidgin, the lingua franca), Hiri Motu (in Papua region), English 1–2%; 715 indigenous languages
Paraguay-Spanish, Guaraní (both official)
Peru-Spanish, Quéchua (both official); Aymara; many minor Amazonian languages
The Philippines-Filipino (based on Tagalog), English (both official); eight major dialects: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Portugal-Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
Qatar-Arabic (official); English a common second language
Romania-Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Russia-Russian, others
Rwanda-Kinyarwanda, French, and English (all official); Kiswahili in commercial centers
St. Kitts and Nevis-English
St. Lucia-English (official), French patois
St. Vincent and the Grenadines-English, French patois
Samoa-Samoan, English
San Marino-Italian
São Tomé and Príncipe-Portuguese (official)
Saudi Arabia-Arabic
Senegal-French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Serbia and Montenegro-Serbian (official) 95%, Albanian 5%
Seychelles-Seselwa Creole, English, French (all official)
Sierra Leone-English (official), Mende (southern vernacular), Temne (northern vernacular), Krio (lingua franca)
Singapore-Malay (national), Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, English (all official)
Slovakia-Slovak (official), Hungarian
Slovenia-Slovenian 92%, Serbo-Croatian 6.2%, other 1.8%
Solomon Islands-English 1%–2% (official), Melanesian pidgin (lingua franca), 120 indigenous languages
Somalia-Somali (official), Arabic, English, Italian
South Africa-Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu (all 11 official)
Spain-Castilian Spanish 74% (official nationwide); Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% (each official regionally)
Sri Lanka-Sinhala 74% (official and national), Tamil 18% (national), other 8%; English is commonly used in government and spoken competently by about 10%
Sudan-Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
Suriname-Dutch (official), Surinamese (lingua franca), English widely spoken, Hindustani, Javanese
Swaziland-English, siSwati (both official)
Sweden-Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Switzerland-German 63.7%, French 12.9%, Italian 7.6%, Romansch 0.6% (all official); other 8.9%
Syria-Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Taiwan-Chinese (Mandarin, official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
Tajikistan-Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Tanzania-Swahili, English (both official); Arabic; many local languages
Thailand-Thai (Siamese), English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Togo-French (official, commerce); Ewé, Mina (south); Kabyé, Cotocoli (north); and many dialects
Tonga-Tongan (an Austronesian language), English
Trinidad and Tobago-English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Tunisia-Arabic (official, commerce), French (commerce)
Turkey-Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
Turkmenistan-Turkmen 72%; Russian 12%; Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Tuvalu-Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
Uganda-English (official), Ganda or Luganda, other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Ukraine-Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
United Arab Emirates-Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
United Kingdom-English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic
United States-English, sizable Spanish-speaking minority
Uruguay-Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero
Uzbekistan-Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Vanuatu-Bislama (a Melanesian pidgin English), English, French (all 3 official); more than 100 local languages
Vatican City (Holy See)-Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Venezuela-Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Vietnam-Vietnamese (official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Western Sahara (proposed state)-Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
Zambia-English (official); major vernaculars: Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga; about 70 other indigenous languages
Zimbabwe-English (official), Shona, Ndebele (Sindebele), numerous minor tribal dialects

No comments: